'Donald-duck' speech
<40 years of age
<6 hours incubation
>20mmHg postural drop in systolic BP
>40 years of age
ANA+
Abdominal bloating
Abdominal cramps
Abdominal distension
Abdominal pain
Abnormal LFTs
Absence of other associated symptoms
Absence of other systemic or chest symptoms
Absent: urine urobilinogen
Ache on walking long distance
Aching pain over temple, worse on brushing hair
Acne
Acute back pain
Acute bloody diarrhoea
Acute episode diarrhoea
Acute headache
Acute neurological deficit
Acute watery diarrhoea
Acutely presents as cold, pulseless arm with pain on finger extension
Acutely red, tender, swollen leg
Adson's sign: Loss of radial pulse on abduction and external rotation of the shoulder
Alopecia
Amenorrhoea
Amnesia
Anaemia
Anhedonia
Ankle pain
Ankylosing spondylitis-like
Anorectal pain
Anorexia
Anti-GBM antibodies
Anti-La+
Anti-Ro+
Anti-mitochondrial antibody
Antibiotics
Antiepileptics
Antihypertensives
Anxiety
Aortic aneurysm
Aphasia
Arrhythmia on 24 hour tape
Arthritis mutilans
Ascites
Associated autuimmune disease
Associated chemotherapy
Associated deep vein thrombosis
Associated gouty tophi, previous history of gout
Associated nephrotic syndrome
Associated neurological deficit such as cauda equina syndrome
Associated papilloedema
Associated pulmonary embolism
Associated symptoms of malignancy
Associated with bunion and development of osteoarthritis of big toe joint
Associated with circinate balanatis, keratoderma blennorrhagicum
Associated with neurological disease such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and Friedreich's ataxia
Associated with polymyalgia rheumatica: Proximal muscle pain and stiffness
Associated with psychological stress
Ataxia
Atrial fibrillation
Atypical lymphocytes
Autonomic neuropathy
Back pain
Belching
Bibasal crepitations
Bilateral leg erythema and swelling
Bitemporal hemianopia
Bloating
Blood on toilet paper when wiping
Blood transfusion
Bone pain
Bovine cough
Bradycardia
Brain stem CVA
Brisk jaw jerk
Bulbar palsy
Burning
Burning and tingling of affected toes
Burning character
CANCA+
Can be caused by radiation, herpetic infection or sexually transmitted infection
Can be caused by sexual intercourse
Can develop rebound headache due to long term usage of paracetamol, codeine or NSAIDs
Can have acute on chronic deterioration with acute illness
Can lead to severe deformities including swan-neck and boutonniere deformities
Carbimazole
Carditis
Carotid artery stenosis
Cauda equina syndrome
Caused by avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Caused by pelvic surgery, syringomyelia, spina bifida
Caused by separation of articular cartilage from underlying bone
Caused by thiamine deficiency, usually in alcoholics
Caused by upper motor neurone injury - usually associated hyperreflexia and spasticity in lower limbs
Causes include chronic pancreatitis, coeliac disease, Whipple's disease
Causes include osteoarthritis, osteochondritis dessicans, chip fractures
Causes: Poorly-fitting shoes, Neurological disease, Rheumatoid arthritis
Central abdominal pain
Central chest pain
Central cyanosis
Cerebellar signs
Cervical X ray may show degenerative change
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Cervix present within vagina
Change in appearance with coarsening of features
Change in bowel habit
Characteristic CXR findings
Chest pain
Child
Chronic back pain
Chronic headache
Chronic neurological deficit
Chronic widespread pain
Classical history is of head injury, particularly to the temple followed by 'lucid interval' then worsening
Classical history is of kinking of neck at hairdresser or turning the neck
Click on forced extension of the finger
Clicking
Clubbing
Coarse skin
Cognitive deficits
Combined upper and lower motor neurone signs
Common in soldiers, walkers
Confusion
Conjunctivitis
Consolidation on CXR
Constipation
Consumption of NSAIDs or excessive alchohol
Contact with TB
Contact with infected individuals
Contact with infective individuals / contaminated water
Contaminated canned food
Contaminated meat
Contaminated rice
Contaminated seafood
Continuous
Coombs' test positive
Cough
Course crepitiations
Coxa vara
Crepitus
Crushing
Dark urine
Decreased PEFR
Decreased range of motion
Decreased: Serum haptoglobin
Deficit of lower cranial nerves
Deficit persists for greater than 24 hours
Deficit resolves within 24 hours
Dehydration
Dependent oedema
Dermatomal distribution
Descending paralysis
Deviation of head to affected side
Diabetes
Diabetes is most common cause
Diagnosed with Hallpike test
Diagnostic changes on pelvic USS
Diarrhoea
Difficulty eating
Dilated loops on AXR
Diminished breath sounds
Diplopia
Direct trauma to medial aspect of knee
Distinguishing features: biting tip of the tongue, duration > 2 minutes, closed eyes, side to side head movements
Dizziness
Drowsiness
Dry eyes
Dry mouth
DsDNA+
Due to refractive error, worse after reading
Duration greater than 30 minutes
Duration usually less than 30 minutes
Dysarthria
Dysmenorrhoea
Dyspareunia
Dysphagia
Dysphasia
Dysphonia
Dysuria
EBV
ECG: Flattened or inverted T waves, U waves, ST depression
Ear pain
Early morning waking
Early saiety
Easy bruising
Ectopic wide complexes on ECG
Either known leukaemia or diagnostic features on blood film or bone marrow
Ejection systolic murmur
Elbow pain
Elderly
Elevated ALP
Elevated CK
Elevated ESR
Elevated JVP
Elevated inflammatory markers
Elevated serum IgM
Elevated serum urate
Endocarditis
Epidural
Epigastric pain
Episodic
Episodic - acute attacks
Erythema marginatum
Exacerbated by arm flexion
Excessive alcohol consumption
Excessive consumption of vegetables such as carrots
Excessive insulin or insufficient food
Exclusion of organic disease
Exposure to TB
FH of sudden death
Facial flushing
Facial swelling
Faecal incontinence
Faecal-oral spread
Faecal-oral transmission or undercooked sea food
Family history
Fatigue
Feeling of dread / doom
Female of child-bearing age
Fever
Fever is usually absent
Fever may be present or absent
Fine tremor
Fistulae
Fixed flexion of ring or little finger
Flank pain
Flexion deformity of muscles of the forearm due to brachial artery ischaemia
Fluctuating neurological signs
Follows lumbar puncture
Foot deformity
Foot pain
Foul smelling stools
Frequency of urine
Frequent flatulence
Frequent waking
Frothy pink sputum
G6PD, pyruvate kinase deficiency
Galactorrhoea
Gallstones
Generalized rash
Giant cell arteritis
Giving way
Goitre
Gradual onset of pain and stiffness of proximal muscles usually in the elderly
Groin pain
Haematemesis
Haematospermia
Haematuria
Haemochromatosis
Haemolytic anaemia
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Haemoptysis
Halitosis
Halothane
Hand pain
Hand pain or deformity
Headache
Hearing loss
Heart failure
Heavy voice usage: Lecturer, Singer etc
Heberden's nodes
Hemianopia
Hemiparesis
Hemiplegia
Hepatic jaundice
Hepatitis A: Faecal-oral spread
Hepatomegaly
Hesistancy
High fever
Hip pain
Hirsuitism
History of anticoagulant therapy or bleeding diathesis
History of consumption of relevant drug e.g. antibiotics, laxatives, opioids etc
History of degenerative spinal disease
History of excessive alcohol consumption
History of forced twisting of flexed knee
History of injury or overuse of affected joints
History of lymphatic surgery, tropical infection, family history
History of neurological disease
History of osteoarthritis
History of preceding left iliac fossa pain and/or mass
History of preceding strenuous exercise
History of preceding viral infection such as glandular fever
History of prostatism
History of recent surgery, catheterization or injury
History of recurrent trauma or exertion
History of relevant drug e.g. nitrates
History of relevant drug: alcohol, phenytoin, barbituates, gentamycin, quinine, salicylates
History of sarcoid, TB etc
History of sexual intercourse
History of tonic-clinic seizure with prolonged post-ictal period and tongue-biting
History of trauma
Hoarseness
Hot flushes
Hyperbilirubinaemia on fasting
Hyperinflated chest
Hypernatraemia
Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperpigmentation
Hyperresonant percussion
Hypertension
Hypertriglyceridemia
Hypocalcaemia
Hypomagnesaemia
Hyponatraemia
Hypotension
Hypotension, tachycardia
Hypotension, tachycardia, confusion
Hypotensive, tachycardic
Hypothyroidism
IHD
IVDU
Immunosupression
Impacted faeces palpable on PR examination
Impaired memory or concentration
Impotence
Inability to weight bear
Increased lateral movement of patella
Increased pain in response to tactile pressure
Increased pain throughout the day
Increased sweating
Increased: Urine bilirubin
Increased: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, urine bilirubin, ALT, AST
Increased: conjugated bilirubin, urine bilirubin, ALP, GGT
Increased: unconjugated bilirubin, urine urobilinogen
Incubation 12 hours
Incubation 12-36 hours
Incubation 24 hours
Incubation period 24 hours
Incubation period up to 5 days
Infertility
Insulin
Intermenstrual bleeding
Intermestrual bleeding
Intermittent
Intermittent 'colicky' pain
Intermittent crushing chest pain
Intermittent diarrhoea
Iron deficiency anaemia
Irregular rhythm
Ischaemia of posterior fossa due to vertebral artery occulsion
Jaundice
Joint crepitus
Joint deformity
Joint effusion
Joint pain
Kernig's sign
Knee arthritis
Knee giving way
Knee pain
Lactic acidosis
Landing heavily on knee with twisting motion, skiing
Large hands
Left iliac fossa pain
Leg pain
Leg swelling
Leg ulcers
Leg weakness
Lemon tinge to skin
Light coloured, bulky foul-smelling stools that float in the pan
Limp
Locking
Loss of consciousness
Loss of lung markings on CXR
Low mood
Lower abdominal pain
Lower motor neurone facial palsy
Lumbar puncture
Lymphadenopathy
Macroglossia
Malaise
Malignancy
Malodourous cervical discharge
Mask-like facies
May be associated with anxiety
May be associated with brainstem cranial nerve signs
May be reduced level of consciousness
May have asymmetrical skin folds, not painful or otherwise symptomatic in neonate
May have palpable mass at joint margin
May have palpable nodule on flexor surface of finger
May lead to chronic inflammation and calcification
Mechanical heart valve
Mediastinal mass
Melaena
Meningism
Menorrhagia
Methotrexate
Missed beats
Monoarthritis
Monophonic wheeze
Morning stiffness
Motor neurone disease
Motor weakness
Mouth ulcers
Multiple distinct neurological deficits over a period of time
Multiple sclerosis
Mumps
Murphy's sign positive
Muscle cramps
Muscle stiffness
Muscle weakness
Myalgia
Myocardial infarction
Nail pitting
Nasal bridge collapse
Nasal speech
Nausea
Nausea and vomiting
Neck pain
Neck spasm
Neck stiffness
Neurological deficit
Night sweats
No demonstratable pathology
No elevation in LFTs on fasting
No features of peripheral vascular disease
No other LFT abnormalites, asymptomatic
No prodrome
No symptoms / signs of organic disease
Non-tender hepatomegaly
Normal / absent jaw jerk
Normal stool, urine
Normal stools, normal urine
Normal: ALP, LFT
Normal: urine urobilinogen, serum haptoglobin
Numbness of perineum
Nystagmus
Obstructive jaundice
Often described as the most severe pain ever experienced
Often preceded by visual, auditory or other aura
Old age
Oligoarthritis
Oligomenorrhoea
Onset over hours / days
Opacity on CXR
Opacity with fluid level on CXR
Ophthalmoplegia
Opiates, benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics
Opportunistic infections: Candidiasis, PCP pneumonia, Crytococcal meningitis
Optic atrophy
Oral contraceptive pill
Orthopnoea
Osteoarthritis
Other causes of amenorrhoea excluded
Otherwise asymptomatic
Pain at lateral margin of patella
Pain beneath patella
Pain can precede rash
Pain in ball of foot shooting to affected toes due to neuroma of digital nerve
Pain on defaecation
Pain on wiping
Pain precipitated by wrist extension
Pain with pressure over costal cartilage
Pain worse on ascending / descending stairs or sitting
Pain, weakness on prolonged standing
Painful haematuria
Painful periods
Painless haematuria
Painless, fluctuant swelling adjacent to wrist joint
Pale stools
Palpable gall bladder
Palpable mass behind knee
Palpable mass in sternocleidomastoid muscle
Palpable prostate on rectal examination
Palpable tender mass
Palpitations
Papilloedema
Paracetamol
Paresthesia
Particularly common in athletes involved in sports that require jumping
Passive movement is pain free
Pelvic tenderness
Peripheral neuropathy
Peripheral oedema
Peripheral vascular disease
Persistent cough
Persistent dry cough
Persistent swelling, non-tender
Personality change
Petichiae
Photophobia
Photosensitivity
Pleuritic chest pain
Point of tenderness over affected metatarsal
Polyarthritis
Polydypsia
Polyuria
Poor appetite
Poor nutritional status
Poor peripheral pulses
Poor stream
Positive pregnancy test
Positive streptococcal serology
Posterior prolapse: Pain or numbness in C5-C7 dermatomes; Reduced biceps / supinator reflex
Posterior prolapse: Shooting pain radiating to thigh, calf 'sciatica'
Postmenopausal bleeding
Postural hypotension
Pre-hepatic jaundice
Preceded by hunger, sweating, disorientation
Preceded by sweating, hunger
Preceding URTI with nasal discharge
Preceding history of head injury, may be minor trauma
Preceding injury / insect bite
Preceding nausea and narrowing of vision
Preceding neck surgery / malignancy
Preceding sexually transmitted infection (neisseria, chlamydia} or intestinal infection (salmonela, shigella, campylobacter}
Preceding viral URTI
Precipitated by chest wall pressure or movement
Precipitated by coughing and leaning forward
Precipitated by fatty food
Precipitated by laughing, coughing, sneezing etc
Predictable onset after exertion
Previous DVT, recurrent cellulitis
Previous antibiotic therapy
Previous f, radiation, ingestion of corrosive substances
Previous history of seizures if known epilepsy
Previous recurrent acute laryngitis
Previous similar episodes
Productive cough
Progressive amnesia and confusion,
Progressive flexion deformity with prominent fibrotic band affecting little and ring fingers
Progressive neurological deficit affecting legs
Progressive onset over months / years
Progressive over weeks / months
Prolonged 'post-ictal' recovery period
Prolonged bleeding with tooth extraction
Protrusion following straining at defaecation
Proximal muscle weakness
Pruritus
Psoas abscess
Psychiatric disturbance
Ptosis
Pulmonary hypertension
Pulsatile abdominal mass
Purpuric rash
RF+
RF+ve
Radiating to groin
Radiation from buttock to posterior ankle
Radiation to back
Radiation to jaw, left arm or neck
Radiation to right scapula
Raised inflammatory markers
Raised intracranial pressure
Rapid recovery
Rapid recovery without residual deficit
Rare
Rash
Raynaud's
Reactive arthritis
Recent cardiac surgery
Recent travel
Rectal bleeding
Rectal pain
Recurrent diarrhoea
Recurrent episodes
Recurrent episodes LRTI
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Red currant jelly stool
Reduced peak expiratory flow rate
Reduced sensation, tone, reflexes lower limbs and sphincters
Reduced visual acuity
Reduces in size with pressure
Reflux
Regular rate with superimposed beats
Regurgitation
Regurgitation of undigested food
Relevant history
Relevant history of trauma
Relieved by antacids
Relieved by food
Relieved by leaning forward
Relieved by lying down
Relieved by rest
Renal impairment
Reversible confusion secondary to acute illness or metabolic disturbance
Rheumatoid-arthritis like
Right lower quadrant mass
Right lower quadrant pain
Right upper quadrant pain
Rigors
Risk factors for tuberculosis
Risk factors of embolic stroke
Risk factors: Anticoagulant therapy, Elderly, Alcoholics
Risk factors: Familial, tight footwear, women
Risk factors: Lower respiratory tract infection, other respiratory pathology
Risk factors: Male, Familial, Active - runners
Risk factors: Prolonged period of time kneeling, Infection
Risk factors: Supracondylar fracture of humerus, Surgery adjacent to brachial artery, tight cast
Risk factors: Tight footwear, Middle age
Risk factors: Tight shoes, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma
Risk factors: Trauma, Male, Overuse in sports
Risk factors: immobility, cancer, recent surgery, travel, oral contraceptive pill
Risk factors: missed cervical smears, immunsupression
Risk of sudden loss of vision due to ophthalmic artery occlusion
Rubella
Runners
Sacroilitis
Saddle shaped ST elevation on ECG
Sausage-shaped mass right upper quadrant
Scarlet fever
Sclerodactyly
Seizure
Seizures
Self limiting but can be severe and disabling
Sensation of fullness
Sensation of fullness or pressure in one or both ears
Sensation of lump in the throat
Sensation of lump in throat
Sensation of tightness, constricting band
Sepsis
Severe abdominal pain
Sharp character
Shortness of breath
Shoulder pain
Signs of decompensated liver diseaseHistory of excessive alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease
Single episode
Sleep disturbance
Sleep studies demonstrate recurrent hypoxia
Slurred speech
Smoker
Smoking
Snoring
Sore throat
Spinal surgery
Splenomegaly
Spreading confluent erythema
Streptococcal infection
Stress fracture of metatarsal due to recurrent stress
Stridor
Subacute headache
Subacute neurological deficit
Subcutaneous nodules
Sudden loss of cardiac output
Sudden onset
Sudden onset leg pain and swelling
Sweating
Swelling and effusion
Swelling of 1st metacarpophalangeal joint with osteophytes
Sydenham's chorea
Symmetrical deforming polyarthritis
Syncope
Tachycardia
Tachypnoea
Tattoos
Tearing character
Temporal arteritis
Tendernes on digital rectal examination
Tenderness of metatarsal heads
Tendon xanthomas
Tenesmus
Terminal dribbling
Thirst
Thoracic malignancy
Thrombosis
Tight skin
Tinnitus
Tip of toe points inferiorly and posteriorly
Toe deformity
Toe pain
Tongue fasciculations
Tongue swelling
Tongue wasting
Tonsil swelling
Torticollis
Tram line and ring shadows on CXR
Transient neurological deficit
Trauma to outside of the knee in extension, e.g. during rugby or football
Travel to tropical area
Triad of haematuria, loin pain and palpable mass
Triggered by activity
Triggered by bout of coughing
Triggered by exertion
Triggered by lying or sitting to standing
Triggered by touching neck, turning head etc
Triggered by urination
Triggering event - fear, shock, standing
Troisier's sign - palpable supraclavicular lymph node
Typically occurs in large outbreaks, for example schools, cruise ship
Typically unilateral and described as pulsating
Undercooked poultry / eggs
Unequal chest expansion
Unequal peripheral pulses
Unilateral / symmetrical peripheral oedema
Unilateral chest pain
Unilateral orbital, supraorbital or temporal burning / boring pain duration several hours
Unilateral red eye
Unusual taste in mouth
Unusual taste, smells
Urethritis
Urgency
Urinary frequency
Urinary incontinence
Urinary retention
Urticaria
Usually affects teenager or young adult
Usually diagnosed due to clunk on newborn examination
Usually elderly
Usually elderly patient
Usually in obese adolescent males
Usually known diabetic
Vaginal bleeding
Vaginal discharge
Varicose veins, Venous ulcers, trophic skin changes
Vasculitis
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ventricular thrombus
Vertigo
Very rare
Vesicular rash
Visible and palpable lump in arm
Visual disturbance
Visual hallucinations
Vomiting
Waterbrash
Weakness and wasting small muscles of hand
Weight gain
Weight loss
Wheeze
White / yellow sputum
White plaques
Wide mediastinum on chest X ray
Widespread joint and muscle pains
Worse after meal
Worse on lying down
Worse on lying flat
Worse on neck movment
Worse with fatty food
Worsened by food
Worsened by sitting upright, resolves spontaneously
Xanthelasma
Xeropthalmia
Xerostomia
Yellow skin with white sclera
Young adult, may be familial
Young adults engaged in active sports
Zoster vesicles at external auditary meatus

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