Cerebrovascular accident [top]

  • Acute neurological deficit: dysphasia, hemiparesis, hemianopia
  • Deficit persists for greater than 24 hours
  • Risk factor for embolism: atrial fibrillation, ventricular thrombus, carotid artery stenosis, mechanical heart valve

Transient ischaemic attack [top]

  • Acute neurological deficit: dysphasia, hemiparesis, hemianopia
  • Deficit resolves within 24 hours
  • Risk factor for embolism: atrial fibrillation, ventricular thrombus, carotid artery stenosis, mechanical heart valve

Subarachnoid haemorrhage [top]

  • Acute headache, very sudden onset 'like being kicked in the back of the head'
  • May be drowsy / unconscious loss of consciousness, vomiting
  • Signs of meningism:neck stiffness, photophobia
  • Acute neurological deficit

Extradural haematoma [top]

  • Acute or subacute neurological deficit subacute neurological deficit acute neurological deficit
  • Classical history is of head injury, particularly to the temple followed by 'lucid interval' then worsening
  • Acute headache, can cause loss of consciousness

Intracranial haemorrhage [top]

  • Acute neurological deficit: dysphasia, hemiparesis, hemianopia
  • Acute headache, vomiting
  • History of anticoagulant therapy or bleeding diathesis