Inhalation of foreign body [top]

  • Stridor
  • Monophonic wheeze
  • Cough

Pneumothorax [top]

  • Pleuritic chest pain
  • Sudden onset
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unequal chest expansion
  • Diminished breath sounds
  • Hyperresonant percussion

Pulmonary embolism [top]

  • Central chest pain
  • Pleuritic chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Haemoptysis
  • Sudden onset
  • Tachycardia
  • Associated deep vein thrombosis

Asthma [top]

  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheeze
  • Previous similar episodes
  • Reduced peak expiratory flow rate
  • Wheeze
  • Persistent dry cough
  • Decreased PEFR
  • Shortness of breath

Exacerbation of COPD [top]

  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheeze
  • Cough
  • Hyperinflated chest
  • History of smoking

Pulmonary oedema [top]

  • Bibasal crepitations
  • Cough productive of frothy pink sputum
  • History of heart failure
  • Orthopnoea - shortness of breath on lying flat
  • Characteristic CXR findings

Anaphylaxis [top]

  • Sudden onset (minutes)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheeze
  • Facial swelling, tongue swelling
  • Urticaria
  • Hypotension and tachycardia
  • Vomiting