Neurological lesion [top]

  • Change in bowel habit
  • Associated neurological deficit such as cauda equina syndrome

Hypokalaemia [top]

  • Muscle weakness, muscle cramps, myalgia
  • Constipation change in bowel habit
  • ECG: Flattened or inverted T waves, U waves, ST depression

Colon cancer [top]

  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Recurrent diarrhoea alternating with constipation
  • Change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding
  • Tumour of descending colon can causeTenesmus

Hypothyroidism [top]

  • Weight gain
  • Coarse skin
  • Constipation, change in bowel habit
  • Bradycardia
  • Hoarseness, menorrhagia muscle stiffness

Drug-induced change in bowel habit [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea or change in bowel habit
  • History of consumption of relevant drug e.g. antibiotics, laxatives, opioids etc

Rectal carcinoma [top]

  • Tenesmus, palpable mass on PR examination
  • Change in bowel habit, weight loss
  • Rectal bleeding

Hypercalcaemia [top]

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Bone pain
  • Abdominal pain, change in bowel habit
  • Polyuria
  • Psychiatric disturbance

Depression [top]

  • Low mood, fatigue
  • Anhedonia, poor appetite
  • Early morning waking
  • Weight loss, change in bowel habit