Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Postictal state [top]

  • History of preceding seizure
  • Todd's paralysis: Motor weakness, amnesia, aphasia
  • May be associated drowsiness, confusion, nausea

Wernicke's encephalopathy [top]

  • Triad of ophthalmoplegia - most often lateral rectus, ataxia and confusion vertigo
  • Caused by thiamine deficiency, usually in alcoholics

Subdural haematoma [top]

  • Subacute or chronic neurological deficit subacute neurological deficit chronic neurological deficit
  • Fluctuating neurological signs, confusion
  • Headache, Signs of raised intracranial pressure
  • Preceding history of head injury, may be minor trauma
  • Risk factors: Anticoagulant therapy, Elderly, Alcoholics

Encephalitis [top]

  • Subacute headache
  • Confusion, fever, neurological deficit
  • May be reduced level of consciousness