Norwalk virus enteritis [top]

  • Vomiting with diarrhoea acute episode diarrhoea
  • Typically occurs in large outbreaks, for example schools, cruise ship

Traveller's diarrhoea [top]

  • Acute watery diarrhoea, fever
  • Recent travel

Irritable bowel syndrome [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Intermittent abdominal pain

Malabsorption [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea, weight loss
  • Light coloured, bulky foul-smelling stools that float in the pan
  • Causes include chronic pancreatitis, coeliac disease, Whipple's disease

Botulism [top]

  • Diplopia, bulbar palsy, descending paralysis
  • Dry mouth, postural hypotension
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Contaminated canned food
  • Incubation 12-36 hours

Vibrio cholera enteritis [top]

  • Very large volumes of acute watery diarrhoea, vomiting, fever
  • Incubation period up to 5 days
  • Faecal-oral transmission or undercooked sea food

Thyrotoxicosis [top]

  • Palpitations
  • Tachycardia
  • Anxiety
  • Weight loss
  • Diarrhoea

Clostridium difficile [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea
  • Previous antibiotic therapy

Food poisoning: bacillus cereus [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, vomiting
  • <6 hours incubation
  • Contaminated rice

Food poisoning: Salmonella typhi [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, fever, vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps, headache
  • Undercooked poultry / eggs

HIV [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Weight loss, Lymphadenopathy
  • Opportunistic infections: Candidiasis, PCP pneumonia, Crytococcal meningitis

Chron's disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Central abdominal pain
  • Right lower quadrant mass
  • Weight loss, Mouth ulcers, Fistulae
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Colon cancer [top]

  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Recurrent diarrhoea alternating with constipation
  • Change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding
  • Tumour of descending colon can causeTenesmus

Rotavirus enteritis [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea usually in children usually less than 5
  • Vomiting, fever

Entamoeba histolytica enteritis [top]

  • Violent acute watery diarrhoea with mucous acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Frequent flatulence
  • Foul smelling stools
  • Fever

Ulcerative colitis [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, Raised inflammatory markers
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Carcinoid syndrome [top]

  • Episodic attacks of diarrhoea recurrent diarrhoea
  • Facial flushing
  • Wheeze

Hyperthyroidism [top]

  • Weight loss
  • Fine tremor, palpitations
  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Amenorrhoea
  • Increased sweating
  • Goitre

Autonomic neuropathy [top]

  • Vomiting after eating, Intermittent diarrhoea
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Diabetes is most common cause

Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0157 [top]

  • Severe acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Shigella enteritis [top]

  • Acute bloody diarrhoea with mucous
  • Fever, abdominal pain
  • Faecal-oral spread

Mesenteric artery ischaemia [top]

  • Central abdominal pain
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Vomiting, diarrhoea
  • Hypotension, tachycardia

Drug-induced change in bowel habit [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea or change in bowel habit
  • History of consumption of relevant drug e.g. antibiotics, laxatives, opioids etc

Food poisoning: Clostridium perfringens [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, minimalvomiting
  • Incubation 12 hours
  • Contaminated meat

Viral gastroenteritis [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Contact with infective individuals / contaminated water

Campylobacter enteritis [top]

  • Acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Severe abdominal pain

Food poisoning: Staphylococcus aureus [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, vomiting
  • <6 hours incubation
  • Contaminated meat

Faecal impaction with overflow [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea alternating with constipation or faecal incontinence
  • Usually elderly patient
  • Impacted faeces palpable on PR examination

Toxic shock syndrome [top]

  • High fever
  • Generalized rash
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Hypotension, tachycardia

Food poisoning: Vibrio para haemolyticus [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, vomiting
  • Incubation 24 hours
  • Contaminated seafood

Enterotoxigenic E. coli enteritis [top]

  • Acute watery diarrhoea
  • Incubation period 24 hours
  • Contact with infected individuals

Diverticular disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Lower abdominal pain, Left iliac fossa pain
  • Fever, raised inflammatory markers
  • Rectal bleeding

Enteroinvasive E. coli enteritis [top]

  • Acute watery diarrhoea
  • Fever