Oesophageal carcinoma [top]

  • Progressive dysphagia to liquids then solids which stick in throat
  • Epigastric pain
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting, haematemesis, melaena

Oesophageal compression [top]

  • Dysphagia
  • Associated thoracic malignancy, mediastinal mass, aortic aneurysm, goitre

Post-cricoid web [top]

  • Dysphagia
  • Associated iron deficiency anaemia

Achalasia [top]

  • Frequent dysphagia
  • Intermittent vomiting
  • Regurgitation of undigested food
  • Weight loss

Motor neurone disease [top]

  • Combined upper and lower motor neurone signs
  • Dysphagia fluids > solids

Scleroderma [top]

  • Dysphagia, Reflux
  • Tight skin, Mask-like facies, Sclerodactyly
  • Raynaud's, Telangiectasia
  • Pulmonary hypertension causing shortness of breath

Tonsillitis [top]

  • Sore throat, dysphagia
  • Tonsil swelling
  • Fever, lymphadenopathy

Candidiasis [top]

  • Sore throat, dysphagia
  • White plaques
  • Associated immunosupression, antibiotics, diabetes

Bulbar palsy [top]

  • Dysphagia fluids > solids, slurred speech
  • Difficulty eating
  • Nasal speech, Dysarthria, dysphonia
  • Tongue wasting, tongue fasciculations
  • Normal / absent jaw jerk

Pharngeal pouch [top]

  • Dysphagia, vomiting
  • Halitosis
  • Sensation of lump in throat
  • Regurgitation of undigested food

Oesophageal spasm [top]

  • Dysphagia
  • Intermittent crushing chest pain

Laryngeal carcinoma [top]

  • Progressive hoarseness over several months
  • Smoker
  • Dysphagia
  • Haemoptysis
  • Ear pain
  • Weight loss

Carcinoma of cardia of the stomach [top]

  • Progressive dysphagia to liquids then solids
  • Epigastric pain
  • Weight loss

Myasthenia gravis [top]

  • Dysphagia fluids > liquids
  • Ptosis
  • Fluctuating muscle weakness, fatigability

Xerostomia [top]

  • Dysphagia

Pseudobulbar palsy [top]

  • Dysphagia fluids > liquids
  • 'Donald-duck' speech
  • Associated: brain stem CVA, multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease
  • Brisk jaw jerk

Viral pharyngitis [top]

  • Sore throat, dysphagia
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Fever

Oesophageal stricture [top]

  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Dysphagia
  • Dysphagia to solids
  • Previous f, radiation, ingestion of corrosive substances

Globus pharyngeus [top]

  • Dysphagia
  • Sensation of lump in the throat
  • May be associated with anxiety