Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Bladder stone [top]

  • Recurrent Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain

Uterine prolapse [top]

  • Cervix present within vagina
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Dysuria

Prostatic hypertrophy [top]

  • Urinary frequency, hesistancy, terminal dribbling, poor stream
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Palpable prostate on rectal examination

Bladder spasticity [top]

  • Urinary frequency
  • Caused by upper motor neurone injury - usually associated hyperreflexia and spasticity in lower limbs