Febrile convulsion [top]

  • Generalized seizure in child associated with elevated body temperature fever

Traveller's diarrhoea [top]

  • Acute watery diarrhoea, fever
  • Recent travel

Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Sinusitis [top]

  • Acute headache may be recurrent
  • Facial pain and tenderness, particularly over frontal and maxillary sinuses, fever
  • Preceding URTI with nasal discharge

Appendicitis [top]

  • Central abdominal pain then right lower quadrant pain
  • Anorexia
  • Right lower quadrant pain, tenderness, guarding
  • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
  • Fever

Vibrio cholera enteritis [top]

  • Very large volumes of acute watery diarrhoea, vomiting, fever
  • Incubation period up to 5 days
  • Faecal-oral transmission or undercooked sea food

Viral pharyngitis [top]

  • Sore throat, dysphagia
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy
  • Fever

Food poisoning: Salmonella typhi [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea, fever, vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps, headache
  • Undercooked poultry / eggs

Meningitis [top]

  • Acute headache
  • Photophobia, neck stiffness, meningism, Kernig's sign positive
  • Fever, vomiting, seizure
  • Non-blanching purpuric rash with bacterial meningitis

Malaria [top]

  • Intermittent fever
  • Rigors
  • Travel to tropical area
  • Vomiting
  • Pre-hepatic jaundice

Salpingitis [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain, tenderness, guarding
  • Fever, nausea, vomiting
  • Dyspareunia
  • Malodourous cervical discharge

Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0157 [top]

  • Severe acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Renal carcinoma [top]

  • Painless haematuria
  • Triad of haematuria, loin pain and palpable mass
  • Fever, weight loss

Viral hepatitis [top]

  • Hepatic jaundice
  • Hepatomegaly, right upper quadrantabdominal pain
  • Fever, vomiting
  • Hepatitis A: Faecal-oral spread
  • Hepatitis B, C: IVDU, blood transfusion, tattoos

Cellulitis [top]

  • Spreading confluent erythema
  • Leg swelling
  • Preceding injury / insect bite
  • Fever
  • Elevated inflammatory markers

Tuberculosis [top]

  • Weight loss
  • Cough
  • Haemoptysis
  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Contact with TB
  • Opacity on CXR

Sinus tachycardia [top]

  • Tachycardia
  • Palpitations
  • Associated anxiety / sepsis / fever

Perianal abscess [top]

  • Marked pain adjacent to anus rectal pain
  • Palpable tender mass
  • May be associated with fever and systemic disturbance

Tonsillitis [top]

  • Sore throat, dysphagia
  • Tonsil swelling
  • Fever, lymphadenopathy

Ulcerative colitis [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, Raised inflammatory markers
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Rheumatic fever [top]

  • Flitting polyarthritis, carditis
  • Recent streptococcal infection - scarlet fever or positive streptococcal serology
  • Erythema marginatum (annular erythema) or subcutaneous nodules
  • Sydenham's chorea
  • Fever, raised inflammatory markers

Pyelonephritis [top]

  • Flank pain
  • Fever, rigors
  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Nausea, vomiting

Shigella enteritis [top]

  • Acute bloody diarrhoea with mucous
  • Fever, abdominal pain
  • Faecal-oral spread

Rotavirus enteritis [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea usually in children usually less than 5
  • Vomiting, fever

Pneumonia [top]

  • Pleuritic chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Productive cough
  • Haemoptysis
  • Consolidation on CXR

Viral gastroenteritis [top]

  • Acute episode diarrhoea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Contact with infective individuals / contaminated water

Lung abscess [top]

  • Haemoptysis
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Productive cough with foul smelling sputum
  • Chest pain
  • Opacity with fluid level on CXR

Encephalitis [top]

  • Subacute headache
  • Confusion, fever, neurological deficit
  • May be reduced level of consciousness

Viral bronchitis [top]

  • Productive cough
  • White / yellow sputum
  • Fever

Campylobacter enteritis [top]

  • Acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Severe abdominal pain

Chronic infection [top]

  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Malaise
  • Weight loss

Sepsis [top]

  • Pre-hepatic jaundice or hepatic jaundice
  • Fever, hypotension, tachycardia

Polymyalgia rheumatica [top]

  • Gradual onset of pain and stiffness of proximal muscles usually in the elderly
  • Fatigue, fever, greatly elevated ESR
  • A manifestation of Giant cell arteritis, associated with Temporal arteritis

Septic arthritis [top]

  • Acute Monoarthritis, severe pain, swelling knee pain ankle pain
  • Fever, elevated inflammatory markers
  • Inability to weight bear

Entamoeba histolytica enteritis [top]

  • Violent acute watery diarrhoea with mucous acute bloody diarrhoea
  • Frequent flatulence
  • Foul smelling stools
  • Fever

Diverticular disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Lower abdominal pain, Left iliac fossa pain
  • Fever, raised inflammatory markers
  • Rectal bleeding

Enteroinvasive E. coli enteritis [top]

  • Acute watery diarrhoea
  • Fever