Oesophageal carcinoma [top]

  • Progressive dysphagia to liquids then solids which stick in throat
  • Epigastric pain
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting, haematemesis, melaena

Bleeding duodenal ulcer [top]

  • Haematemesis or melaena
  • Epigastric pain; preceding history of recurrent epigastric pain

Epistaxis [top]

  • Can be mistaken for haematemesis

Mallory-Weiss tear [top]

  • Vomiting followed by regurgitation of bright red blood haematemesis

Gastric ulcer or erosion [top]

  • Burning epigastric pain
  • Worsened by food
  • Vomiting after eating, Weight loss
  • Consumption of NSAIDs or excessive alchohol
  • Haematemesis or melaena if bleeding

Ingestion of corrosive substance [top]


Oesophageal varices [top]

  • Severe haematemesis, melaena
  • Hypotension, tachycardia
  • Signs of decompensated liver diseaseHistory of excessive alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease

Duodenal ulcer [top]

  • Burning epigastric pain
  • Relieved by food
  • Vomiting after eating, weight loss
  • Haematemesis or melaena if bleeding

Haemoptysis [top]

  • Can be mistaken for haematemesis

Meckel's diverticulum [top]

  • Melaena, rectal bleeding
  • Chronic iron deficiency anaemia
  • Otherwise asymptomatic