Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Renal stone [top]

  • Colicky flank pain radiating to groin
  • Painful haematuria

Renal carcinoma [top]

  • Painless haematuria
  • Triad of haematuria, loin pain and palpable mass
  • Fever, weight loss

Bladder stone [top]

  • Recurrent Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain

Renal colic [top]

  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Haematuria

Cystitis [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Frequency of urine, dysuria, haematuria

Trauma [top]

  • Painful haematuria
  • History of recent surgery, catheterization or injury
  • Can be caused by sexual intercourse

Wegener's granulomatosis [top]

  • Haemoptysis
  • Shortness of breath
  • Renal impairment
  • Haematuria
  • Vasculitis
  • Rash
  • Nasal bridge collapse
  • Malaise
  • cANCA+