Lateral collateral ligament injury [top]

  • Acute knee pain
  • Direct trauma to medial aspect of knee

Gout [top]

  • Acute monoarthritis
  • Most commonly affecting big toe, but large joints also involved knee pain
  • Associated gouty tophi, previous history of gout
  • Elevated serum urate

Medial shelf syndrome [top]

  • Medial knee pain and locking

Loose bodies in knee joint [top]

  • Recurrent knee pain, locking, giving way
  • Swelling and effusion
  • Causes include osteoarthritis, osteochondritis dessicans, chip fractures

Recurrent patella subluxation [top]

  • knee pain, knee giving way usually in young girls
  • Increased lateral movement of patella

Anterior cruciate ligament injury [top]

  • Acute knee pain
  • Landing heavily on knee with twisting motion, skiing

Rheumatoid arthritis [top]

  • Symmetrical deforming polyarthritis polyarthritis or monoarthritis Hand pain or deformity
  • Involvement of small joints of hands, wrists, knees knee pain
  • Morning stiffness
  • Can lead to severe deformities including swan-neck and boutonniere deformities
  • Usually RF+ve

Prepatellar bursitis 'housemaids knee' [top]

  • Localised pain and swelling beneath patella knee pain due to inflammation of prepatellar bursa
  • Risk factors: Prolonged period of time kneeling, Infection

Meniscal cyst [top]

  • Knee pain, clicking, giving way
  • May have palpable mass at joint margin

Osteoarthritis [top]

  • Joint pain, deformity joint deformity usually in the elderly
  • Predominantly affects hips hip pain, knees knee pain, distal interphalangeal joints, spine elbow pain
  • Crepitus joint crepitus on passive movement, effusion joint effusion
  • Heberden's nodes
  • Increased pain throughout the day
  • History of injury or overuse of affected joints

Hoffa's fat pad syndrome [top]

  • knee pain and locking
  • Pain beneath patella

Septic arthritis [top]

  • Acute Monoarthritis, severe pain, swelling knee pain ankle pain
  • Fever, elevated inflammatory markers
  • Inability to weight bear

Medial collateral ligament injury [top]

  • Acute knee pain
  • Trauma to outside of the knee in extension, e.g. during rugby or football

Ileotibial band syndrome [top]

  • Pain at lateral margin of patella
  • Common cause of knee pain in runners

Chrondromalacia patellae [top]

  • knee pain, particularly around knee cap, crepitus
  • Young adults engaged in active sports
  • Pain worse on ascending / descending stairs or sitting

Osteochondritis dessicans [top]

  • Aching knee pain and swelling after activity with locking and giving way
  • Usually affects teenager or young adult
  • Caused by separation of articular cartilage from underlying bone
  • Risk factors: Trauma, Male, Overuse in sports

Patella tendinopathy [top]

  • Pain at lower pole of patella knee pain
  • Particularly common in athletes involved in sports that require jumping

Meniscal tear [top]

  • Acute knee pain, locking
  • History of forced twisting of flexed knee