Cardiac failure [top]

  • Peripheral oedema
  • Ascites
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Elevated JVP

Lymphatic abnormality [top]

  • Unilateral / symmetrical peripheral oedema
  • Progressive onset over months / years
  • Persistent swelling, non-tender
  • History of lymphatic surgery, tropical infection, family history

Low albumin [top]

  • Dependent oedema
  • Ascites
  • Poor nutritional status
  • Associated nephrotic syndrome

Venous insufficiency [top]

  • Lower leg pain or aching on prolonged standing
  • Varicose veins, Venous ulcers, trophic skin changes
  • Peripheral oedema
  • Previous DVT, recurrent cellulitis
  • Relieved by lying down

Pulmonary hypertension [top]

  • Peripheral oedema
  • Shortness of breath
  • Recurrent syncope
  • Chest pain

Bilateral cellulitis [top]

  • Bilateral leg erythema and swelling
  • Very rare

Inferior vena cava obstruction [top]

  • Onset over hours / days
  • Consider risk factors for malignancy / thrombosis