Cervical disc prolapse [top]

  • Torticollis
  • Neck pain
  • Posterior prolapse: Pain or numbness in C5-C7 dermatomes; Reduced biceps / supinator reflex
  • Anterior prolapse: Leg numbness, weakness leg weakness

Spinal tuberculosis [top]

  • Progressive onset of back pain or leg weakness chronic back pain
  • Fever is usually absent
  • Elevated inflammatory markers
  • Can lead to psoas abscess
  • Risk factors: Exposure to TB, immunosupression

Spinal abscess [top]

  • Progressive onset of back pain or leg weakness chronic back pain
  • Fever may be present or absent
  • Elevated inflammatory markers
  • Risk factors: Spinal surgery, diabetes, lumbar puncture, epidural

Lumbar disc prolapse [top]

  • Sudden onset of back pain in association with minor trauma such as lifting or coughing acute back pain
  • Large anterior prolapse: Cauda equina syndrome - leg weakness, numbness of perineum, faecal incontinence, urinary retention
  • Posterior prolapse: Shooting pain radiating to thigh, calf 'sciatica'