Ulcerative colitis [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, Raised inflammatory markers
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Pelvic inflammatory disease [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, tenesmus
  • Pelvic tenderness
  • Menorrhagia

Salpingitis [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain, tenderness, guarding
  • Fever, nausea, vomiting
  • Dyspareunia
  • Malodourous cervical discharge

Endometriosis [top]

  • Intermittent lower abdominal pain with menstrual cycle
  • Dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia
  • Menorrhagia
  • Infertility

Ectopic pregnancy [top]

  • Constant lower abdominal pain referred to shouldr
  • Amenorrhoea, vaginal bleeding
  • Positive pregnancy test
  • Vomiting

Bladder stone [top]

  • Recurrent Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain

Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Cystitis [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Frequency of urine, dysuria, haematuria

Appendicitis [top]

  • Central abdominal pain then right lower quadrant pain
  • Anorexia
  • Right lower quadrant pain, tenderness, guarding
  • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
  • Fever

Large bowel obstruction [top]

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Vomiting, Abdominal distension, Constipation
  • Dilated loops on AXR

Diverticular disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Lower abdominal pain, Left iliac fossa pain
  • Fever, raised inflammatory markers
  • Rectal bleeding