Ulcerative colitis [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, Raised inflammatory markers
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Large upper GI bleed [top]


Anal fissure [top]

  • Anorectal pain, Rectal bleeding
  • Pain on defaecation
  • Pain on wiping

Chron's disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea with rectal bleeding
  • Central abdominal pain
  • Right lower quadrant mass
  • Weight loss, Mouth ulcers, Fistulae
  • Large joint polyarthritis, sacroilitis

Colon cancer [top]

  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Recurrent diarrhoea alternating with constipation
  • Change in bowel habit, rectal bleeding
  • Tumour of descending colon can causeTenesmus

Haemorrhoids [top]

  • Fresh rectal bleeding
  • Usually painless but may cause pain anorectal pain
  • Blood on toilet paper when wiping
  • Protrusion following straining at defaecation

Traumatic injury [top]


Diverticulitis [top]

  • Rectal bleeding usually middle aged or above
  • History of preceding left iliac fossa pain and/or mass

Rectal carcinoma [top]

  • Tenesmus, palpable mass on PR examination
  • Change in bowel habit, weight loss
  • Rectal bleeding

Proctitis [top]

  • Anorectal pain,tenesmus, rectal bleeding
  • Can be caused by radiation, herpetic infection or sexually transmitted infection

Intussusception [top]

  • Vomiting
  • Child
  • Colickly abdominal pain
  • Red currant jelly stool, rectal bleeding
  • Sausage-shaped mass right upper quadrant

Diverticular disease [top]

  • Recurrent diarrhoea
  • Lower abdominal pain, Left iliac fossa pain
  • Fever, raised inflammatory markers
  • Rectal bleeding

Meckel's diverticulum [top]

  • Melaena, rectal bleeding
  • Chronic iron deficiency anaemia
  • Otherwise asymptomatic