Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [top]

  • Syncope
  • Triggered by exertion
  • FH of sudden death
  • Ventricular hypertrophy
  • Chest pain

Micturation syncope [top]

  • Syncope
  • Triggered by urination
  • History of prostatism

Postural hypotension [top]

  • Syncope, dizziness
  • Triggered by lying or sitting to standing
  • >20mmHg postural drop in systolic BP
  • Risk factors: antihypertensives, autonomic neuropathy, dehydration, old age

Vasovagal [top]

  • Syncope
  • Triggering event - fear, shock, standing
  • Preceding nausea and narrowing of vision
  • Rapid recovery without residual deficit

Hypoglycaemia [top]

  • Syncope, transient neurological deficit
  • Preceded by sweating, hunger
  • History of diabetes / insulin
  • Preceded by hunger, sweating, disorientation
  • Usually known diabetic
  • Excessive insulin or insufficient food

Cough syncope [top]

  • Syncope
  • Triggered by bout of coughing

Aortic stenosis [top]

  • Syncope
  • Triggered by exertion
  • Ejection systolic murmur
  • Ventricular hypertrophy

Pulmonary hypertension [top]

  • Peripheral oedema
  • Shortness of breath
  • Recurrent syncope
  • Chest pain

Carotid sinus syndrome [top]

  • Syncope, dizziness
  • Triggered by touching neck, turning head etc

Epilepsy [top]

  • Tonic-clonic seizure, syncope
  • Previous history of seizures if known epilepsy
  • Prolonged 'post-ictal' recovery period
  • Incontinence of faeces / urine urinary incontinence faecal incontinence

Stokes-Adams attack [top]

  • Syncope, transient neurological deficit
  • Sudden onset
  • No prodrome
  • Rapid recovery
  • Arrhythmia on 24 hour tape