Postictal state [top]

  • History of preceding seizure
  • Todd's paralysis: Motor weakness, amnesia, aphasia
  • May be associated drowsiness, confusion, nausea

Functional neurological deficit [top]

  • Transient neurological deficit
  • Exclusion of organic disease

Migraine [top]

  • Acute headache usually with previous similar episodes
  • Typically unilateral and described as pulsating
  • Often preceded by visual, auditory or other aura
  • May be severe with associated nausea, vomiting, photophobia, vertigo
  • May cause transient neurological deficit

Hypoglycaemia [top]

  • Syncope, transient neurological deficit
  • Preceded by sweating, hunger
  • History of diabetes / insulin
  • Preceded by hunger, sweating, disorientation
  • Usually known diabetic
  • Excessive insulin or insufficient food

Transient ischaemic attack [top]

  • Acute neurological deficit: dysphasia, hemiparesis, hemianopia
  • Deficit resolves within 24 hours
  • Risk factor for embolism: atrial fibrillation, ventricular thrombus, carotid artery stenosis, mechanical heart valve

Multiple sclerosis [top]

  • Multiple distinct neurological deficits over a period of time
  • Hemiplegia, nystagmus, vertigo, muscle weakness, dysphasia transient neurological deficit
  • Optic atrophy

Stokes-Adams attack [top]

  • Syncope, transient neurological deficit
  • Sudden onset
  • No prodrome
  • Rapid recovery
  • Arrhythmia on 24 hour tape