Pyelonephritis [top]

  • Flank pain
  • Fever, rigors
  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Nausea, vomiting

Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Bladder spasticity [top]

  • Urinary frequency
  • Caused by upper motor neurone injury - usually associated hyperreflexia and spasticity in lower limbs

Prostatitis [top]

  • Rectal pain
  • Urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, haematospermia
  • Tendernes on digital rectal examination

Bladder stone [top]

  • Recurrent Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain

Prostatic hypertrophy [top]

  • Urinary frequency, hesistancy, terminal dribbling, poor stream
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Palpable prostate on rectal examination