Uterine prolapse [top]

  • Cervix present within vagina
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Dysuria

Epileptic fit [top]

  • Urinary and/or faecal incontinence urinary incontinence faecal incontinence
  • History of tonic-clinic seizure with prolonged post-ictal period and tongue-biting

Neurogenic bladder [top]

  • Urinary incontinence
  • Reduced sensation, tone, reflexes lower limbs and sphincters
  • Caused by pelvic surgery, syringomyelia, spina bifida

Urinary tract infection [top]

  • Dysuria, urinary frequency
  • Painful haematuria
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Fever, confusion in the elderly, urinary incontinence

Epilepsy [top]

  • Tonic-clonic seizure, syncope
  • Previous history of seizures if known epilepsy
  • Prolonged 'post-ictal' recovery period
  • Incontinence of faeces / urine urinary incontinence faecal incontinence

Weakness of pelvic floor muscles [top]

  • Urinary incontinence usually in women
  • Precipitated by laughing, coughing, sneezing etc

Prostatic hypertrophy [top]

  • Urinary frequency, hesistancy, terminal dribbling, poor stream
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Palpable prostate on rectal examination

Dementia [top]

  • Urinary and/or faecal incontinence urinary incontinence faecal incontinence
  • Progressive amnesia and confusion,
  • Usually elderly
  • Can have acute on chronic deterioration with acute illness

Delerium [top]

  • Urinary and/or faecal incontinence urinary incontinence faecal incontinence
  • Reversible confusion secondary to acute illness or metabolic disturbance
  • Usually elderly